Electronic Tolling Europe Study 2023: Table of contents

We have structured the Electronic Tolling Europe 2023 Study into 8 sections:

In Section 1, we introduce the fundamentals of ETC and RUC by defining the key terms and providing an overview of tolling schemes in Europe

In Section 2, we analyse the drivers of growth and challenges of the electronic tolling ecosystem in Europe

The potential inhibitors we analysed are:

– Public and political acceptance

– Fraud and violation

– Toll collection costs

– Interoperability

– Need for standardisation

– Security risks

The drivers we analysed are:

– Increase in road funding needs

– Tolling expanding at the city level

– Tolling as an instrument to reduce emissions and achieve green transition targets

– Expansion of interoperability

– Expansion of new ETC technologies and devices

– Use of AI and data analytics

Integration of tolling with other mobility services

In Section 3, we explain in detail how new EU legislation is shaping the future of tolling in Europe

– We provide the objectives, timeline, implementation, and key provisions present in the EU legislations that impact tolling, such as the Eurovignette directive and the EETS directive;

– We also analyse the impact of GDPR on electronic tolling technologies, notably GNSS and ANPR.

In Section 4, we take an in-depth look at the technology landscape in Europe

– We explore the main configuration alternatives of ETC technologies in Europe;

– We provide an overview of the main building blocks in an ETC system, including roadside systems, back office systems and customer service centres;

– We explore their integration with external and allied agencies;

– We also analyse in detail the characteristics, implementation options, and performance of DSRC, GNSS, ANPR;

– We compare, using the SWOT methodology, DSRC, GNSS and ANPR in Europe;

– We illustrate the current toll configurations in European countries for light and heavy vehicles and provide an expected timeline of its evolution.

In Section 5, we present our in-depth country-by-country analysis of the evolution of the ETC ecosystem for 28 countries

– We review the status quo, illustrating in detail the underlying conditions of the infrastructure and vehicle parc

– We review the value chain structure, key stakeholders and their roles

– We provide a timeline of key tolling milestones and events

– We review the current and future toll charging initiatives (RUC, MLFF, CC, etc.)

– We forecast the number of ETC subscribers and toll revenues until 2032

In Section 6, we analyse, forecast and compare the European tolling market until 2032, notably:

– Key drivers of ETC revenue evolution for both Light Vehicles and Heavy Vehicles,

– ETC penetration by country in 2032,

– Total number of ETC subscriptions by country and vehicle category,

– Total tolls collected,

– ETC revenues vs. other collected tolls,

– Total ETC revenues until 2032.

In Section 7, we present PTOLEMUS’ vision on the future of ETC.

In Section 8, we offer our conclusions and recommendations to stakeholders in the European ETC value chain.